In 1950`s terrains around each volcano were come to be preserved. Many of volcanos are now within the national parks. Costa Rica major volcanic peaks are stratovolcanoes. The
type of magma that fuels most Costa Rica volcanoes is thick, viscous, and so
filled with gases that the erupting magma often blasts violently into the air.
The most serious eruption was that of Irazu volcanoe in
1963. It erupted clouds of smoke and ash that kept shovering over San Jose and
other parts for two years. People had been walking with handkerchief. From roofs
on every day were being scraped layels of polders of even 13 centimetres
thickness. Over 100 square kilometers of the surrounding land were devastated.
The latest eruption in Costa Rica was of Arenal Volcanoe on August 24th, 2000.
One person died and two were severly hurt. 600 residents have been
The most active Costa Rica volcano. It rises at 1633
m.a.s.l. at the edge of San Carlosb Lowland, on the eastern side of the like
with the same name, in Alajuela province. It`s quite young volcano, about 3.000
years old. The volcano lovers declared it as the third volcano in the world with
the most perfect conical shape. During XX century it was passing a few eruptive phases. The
biggest eruption of the latest years took place on 29 July of 1968. The morning
explosion destroyed everything within the 15 kilometres. The settlements like
Pueblo Nuevo and Tabacon were rubbed from the map. More or less 80 people have
lost their lifes. The following volcano eruptive activity recorded in 1975,
when from the main crater the lava started to being appearing and flowing to Rio
Tabacon. From June of 1984, Arenal come into new explosion phase. The ahes, muds
and steam covered Arenal Lake and Tilaran town. Since that time on every day
there are 3 - 20 explosions with lava flowing. It can be seen from the special
view points. The volcano activity was recorded also in 1993 and 1996.
The last one happened on August 24th, 2000. One person have been killed, 2 hurt
and 600 evacuated. In 2001 the government established a buffer zone around the crater. The decree bans the construction of houses and tourist developments in a 5.5-kilometer.
(2.906 m.a.s.l.). The oldest Costa Rica volcano. It`s
within the boundary of Braulio Carillo National Park. Since 1492 is considered
to be dormant. Its calderic structure make the eastern wall of Meseta Central.
Two main craters are filled by lakes with clear and cold water. (Barva Lake-700
m. of width and Danta Lake-500 m. of width). Its slopes are dotted with coffee
seedlings and covered with cypress and pines tree forests. It`s the only place in the world where lives a toad Bufo Holdridge. (It`s inhabited also by Toad Harlequin).
[1659 m.a.s.l.]. It`s placed in the Cordillera Guanacaste
range. It has an open crater towards the south-west of which there is no recorded activity. On
its steep slopes, numerous streams and rivers are born that flow into lake
Nicaragua and the Nicoya Gulf as in the case of Tempsigue river. On its slope,
at an elevation 1.050 m.a.s.l. there is a Cacao Biological Station.
Volcano Cacho Negro
Extinct volcanoe that is situated in Braulio Carillo National Park. It`s known
for its perfect conical shape. Around that the cattle farms are situated. Its
slopes are covered by cypress and pine forests.
(1.100 a.s.l.). Its name means "the flat hill". Its the volcanic formation
with collapsed crater and idyllic lake inside that (it`s possible canoeing there). On August 2000 there was the plane crash, where 10 people
have been killed. Another plane hit its slope on January 2001. One pilot died.
[2.014 m.n.p.m.]. Remants of twin volcano, the southern one. It come into existence about 1,5 milions years ago. From its slopes originates two small brookies that give water for laguna Hule. Since 1993 it is within the Poas Volcano National Park.
Volcano El Viejo
(2.122 m.n.p.m.) It`s situated to the north-west off Poas
volcanoe. It can be reached through Bajos del Toro or Toro Amarillo in
Palmira. It used to be called La Mina (a mine), because of the old
private pumice-stone mine, that existed there. Its slopes are covered by
cypresses and cedars. It belongs to the Juan Castro Blanco National Park.
The highest volcanoe in the country towering at 3432
m.a.s.l. It`s the only place in America, from which it`s possible to see both
oceans at once. On its slopes there are strawberries cultivations. There is a
smell of sulphur on its top. Its main crater is round shaped and is filled with green
water with sulphur and measures 1050 metres of wide and 300 metres of depth. The
second crater Diego da la Haya (called that way in honour of spanish
concvistador Fernandeza Diego de la Haya, who as the first recorded its eruption
from XVIII century), has 600 metres of width and 100 metres of depth. The other
craters are: Playa Hermosa, El Piroklastico and La Laguna. The name Irazu
(Iztaru) derives from the language of Indians which used to live under its
slopes. It means "a thunder" or "the place that shakes". Irazu had a few catastrophic eruptions. That one from 1723
destroyed completely off that time capital - Cartago. The eruption from 19 June
1963 covered San Jose with thick layer of ash. There was conviction that Irazu
blows out on every 30 years. It`s called :"the deadly keg of powder".
[2.028 m.a.s.l.]. It`s situated 15 kilometres off Bagaces,
(the highest in Cordillera Guanacaste). It contains 5 cones along a North-East
trending line. The only reported historical eruptive activity was a small steam
explosion in 1946. On its slopes a few mud bumbling pots and thermal springs. On
the volcanoe foot there is Costa Rica`s Electricity Institute geothermal
project. In the middle of XIX century there was a trial of organizing German
colonization. On cloudless days, from the top it`s possible to see Nicaragua
[1.487 m.a.s.l.]. The legent has it that in the past on the
top of volcano climbed the Indian military groupe. There they were spotted by an
earthquake. One of them was expected to screamed that it`s a sign for silver
presence. From the depths of the volcano came a powerful, echoing voice
replying, "Plata, no; oro, si." ("Silver no, Gold Yes."). It`s crater is covered by forests. The first study of this volcano was made by Carlos Sapper in 1899.
(2.183 m.a.s.l.). A volcanic peak lied at the northernmost
end of Cordillera Central, 7 kilometres south-east of the town of Quesada. It
belongs to Juan Castro Blanco National Park.
There is no clear evidences of uruptive activity of that
peak, but the thin layers of ashes covering in the eastern slope testified its
activity within last few centuries. On its northern slope, flow the thermal
[2706 m.a.s.l]. It has three craters, only one active. It
measures 1500 metres lengh (the second widest crater of the world), and 300
metres of depth. On its bottom there is the most active bubling lake in the
world. Its geiser eruptions shoot at 40 metres above. To the north from the main
crater, Von Frantzius crater (the oldest one) is situated. The third crater
Botos is filled with blue water lake and ringed by thick forests. The first mention of Poas volcanic activity dates back to
1834. Its eruption from 1889 made an earthquake, due to which, a piece of
volcanic wall was torn off and a deep hole filled with water was made.
(Fraijanes Lake). During the eruption from 1910, the ash cloud was shot 8.000
metres into the air. In 1952-1954 there were similar clouds ashes substituted by
deep tremors. Since 1989 the increase of gas emissions has been observed. It`s
in charge of acid rains, that destroyed the strawberry plantations on the
western side of volcanoe.
[2.267 m.a.s.l.]. Large stratowulcano lying within the
Chocosuela caldera. Its summit crater contains a small cone. A thin layer of ash
suggest that an eruption occured within the past few thousand years. It belongs
to Juan Castro Blanco National Park.
Volcano Rincon de la Vieja
It was appeared about millions years ago. It means "the
corner of old lady" and is attributed to indigenous people of the Guatuso tribe
living on the eastern side of the volcano who believed that an old witch lived
on top of the mountain and would send columns of smoke into the air whenever she
got annoyed. It has 9 craters and is considered as the third in
respesct of activity volcanoe in Costa Rica. It`s main crater has elipse shape,
500 metres of width and 100 metres of depth. On its bottom there is a hole with
bumbling 250 Ceisius lava. In April 2000 the Canadian tourist has fallen to
there for three days. To the east of crater there us a lake, waterfalls and
bubling holes. The last vital eruptions took place in 1966-1970. They were
accompanied by clouds of ashes, earthquakes and tremors. The lighter eruptions
took part in 1984, 1891 and 1996.
From its top spreads the sight for Guatuso and San Carlos
lowlands. It`s covered with savannas, rain forest (at mid elevation) and cloud forest (above). From its slopes snakes down the Rio Frio. A legend exists of an
eruption in 1816, but the volcano was observed to be densely forested in 1864
and is not considered to have erupted in historical time. Since 1989 it has been
under a pre-feasibility study to determine its geothermal potential. In 1998 the
vicinity of the volcano was hit by the 1 R scale earthquake.
It`s the most easterntip volcanoe of the Cordillera Central
(the second volcanoe in the country in respect of metres above sea level-3.339). It has been active since 6.300 BC.
In colonial times that was nicknamed by Spaniards as Torre Alba "white tower",
because of its eruptions gave the impression of a huge white tower. It has three
craters. To the main of them doesn`t lead any way. The catastrophic eruptions
happened also in 1723, 1847, 1853, 1855 and 1861. Now the scientists claim its
new eruption might be expected.
In March 2001 the tremors were heard and felt in the volcanoe vicinity and that made the inhabitants of nearby afraid.