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FAMOUS PEOPLE: Politics and presidents

Abel Pacheco
[1933-]. Was born on October 22nd in San Jose and grew up in Limon province. In 1948 his uncle was shot and his family went into exhile to Mexico. There he studied medicine at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Then studied psychiatry at Louisiana State University. On coming back to Costa Rica worked with schizophremics in small towns in the jungle and became a director of National Psychiatric Hospital. Quit three years later in protest because of the scarcity of government funds to care for the poor patients. Was writing novels, songs and was a popular presenter of cultural programmes on Costa Rica television. In the mid-1980`s had kept a pant`s shop in downtown San Jose. A member of Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC). Won in presidencial ellections in 2002 (gaining 38,5 % in first and 58% of votes in the second round). During the campaign he was opposed privatization of state-run industries. A father of six children (the last one with former beauty queen Leila Rodriquez).

Alfredo Gonzalez Flores
[1877-1962]. Was born on July 15th in Heredia. In the years of 1914 - 1917 served as president of the republic (in 1917 overthrown in coup-d`etat Federico Tinoco - his secretary for war and the navy). Was elected by congress after the ellections in which none of three candidates got the proper percentage of votes, and two of them gave up. Started ruling with problems because of falling cofee prices. Proposed increased taxation of the upper class and cut service salaries. Got married in 1922 and left to Washington. In 1923 come back to Costa Rica and until 1962 lived in Heredia (in the house that today is Casa de la Cultura in Heredia).

Alonso del Castillo y Guzman
In the years of 1619-1624 a governor of Costa Rica. In 1619 went with its soldiers to Talamanca and at the mouth of Terire river he caught and drove to Cartago 400 Indians.

Alonso de Anguciana y Gamboa
In the years of 1574-1577 a governor of Costa Rica. In 1574 removed Cartago de Mata Redonda to its current position in El Guarco valley. In the same year founded Esparza (as Espiritu Santos). Laid out also the way between Cartago and Suerre.

Aniceto Esquivel Saenz
[1824-1876]. Was born on April 18th in Cartago. A lawyer. Worked in University of Santo Thomas. A president of Costa Rica for a brief period of three months in 1876 before being deposed in coup d`etat followed by riots in cuartels because opponents of previous president Thomas Guardia induced him to take control over army while Guardia stayed in Guatemala.

Ascencion Esquivel Ibarra
[1844-1923]. Was born in May 10th in Rivas (Nicaragua). A lawyer and liberal. In 1869 got Costa Rican citizenship. A president of Costa Rica in 1889 and 1902-1906. During 1885-1889 a Secretary of State. In 1889 was appointed by Bernardo Soto as his follower, but due to the uprisings and objections of opponents Soto changed his mind. In 1902 became the candidate supported for off-that time president Rafael Yglesias Castro. In 1906 he exhiled three candidates for presidency and proposed his own one. In 1917-1920 a president of Supreme Court. In Liberia there is the school of his name.

Bernardo Soto Alfaro
[1854-1931]. Was born in February 12th in Alajuela. President of Costa Rica in 1885-1889. At the beginning of his ruling faced the problems with Guatemalan president Barrios who wanted to reintroduce the Central American Union. In 1889 changed his decision to handing over the power to his candidate and gave it to a member of opposition party Carlon Duran. That event is considered to be the beginning of Costa Rica democracy. He was proposed by Republicans again to be a president in 1902 and 1906, but in the last case was pressed to exhile. His bust is placed in Park Francisco Morazan in San Jose.

Braulio Carrillo Colina
[1800-1845]. Was born on March 20th in Cartago. A lawyer, "the truly architecter of the country". Two times 1835-1837 and 1838-1842) a chief of Costa Rica. In 1838, took a power separating Costa Rica from the Federation of United Provinces of Central America, liquiding the opposition and calling himself a dictator. Organized the country police system and improve the administration. Encouraged people for coffee planting, liquidated "the lay de la ambulancia" and introduced also penal and civil code. During his term the coffee export increased and Costa Rica became safer in economy. In 1842 (April) was abolished by a Honduranman Francisco Morazan, who in that way wanted to block Costa Rica in its way to independence. Was assassinated in El Salvador in 1845. After him is named one of Costa Rica national parks.

Bruno Carranza Ramirez
[1822-1891]. Was born on October 5th in San Jose. Graduated medicine in Guatemala. Deemed to be a precursor of political journalism (wrote articles to oppositional newspapers). A rector of Santo Tomas university. A provisional president of Costa Rica in 1870. His ruling lasted three months and was liberal. Established Ministry of Public Health. Shortly resigned.

Cleto Gonzalez Viguez
[1858-1937]. Was born on October 13th in Barva. A Minister of Development in Bernardo Soto Alfaro administration. President of Costa Rica in 1906-1910 and 1928-1932. He was born in 1858 in Rivas. In 1906 he won because he was supported by president Ascencion Esquivel and three main other candidates were exhiled. In the ellections before second term he represented National Party and competed with Carlos M. Jimenes from Republican Party. During his term the National Library was built. In 1928 he won as a candidate of National Party. He improved the highway network in the country, paved many streets in San Jose and created National Ellectricity Service. After him was named a park in San Jose (there is put his big bust).

Daniel Oduber Quiros
[1921-1991]. Was born on August 25th in San Jose. President of Costa Rica 1974-1978. During his term granted legal status to the Communist Party and restored diplomatic relations with Cuba. Collected the artefacts and part of his collections now is housed in Museum Regional in Liberia. The airport in Liberia was named after him. His 4-meter high monument is put in Morazan Park in San Jose.

Diego de Artieda y Chirino
[-1591]. Governor of Costa Rica in the years 1577-1590]. In 1577 established Esparza and in 1578 a town of Artieda in Almirante Bay (today in Panama territory). Became famous for establishing the first mill in America.

Diego de Nicuesa
[1464-1511]. The first conquistador of Costa Rica, who in 1506 explored part of the atlantic coast (that today belongs to Panama). His crew was hampered by the jungle, tropical diseases and small bands of indigenous peoples who used guerrilla tactics to fight off the invaders. Soon he just gave up. His trip to Costa Rica was believed to be very unlucky. During the storm he stuck for few days and was believed to be missing. Grew up in Hispanola, in the house of Enrique Enriquez. He ruled Veragua (Panama) for the short time (VII.1508-II.1511).

Federico Tinoco Granados
[1868-1931]. Was born on November 21st in San Jose. President of Costa Rica in the years of 1917-1919. Previously a Minister of War in the cabinet of Alfredo Gonzalez Flores. In 1917 seized power in coup d`etat and established military dictatorship. His government won support from the upper classes but failed to win the recognition of the USA. In 1918 and 1919 were two main revolutions against him (Rio Bravo and Sapoa Revolutions). In August 1919 he was pressed to hand over command to his vicepresident Juan Bautista Quiros but it wasn`t accept by USA. Soon he went into exhile in France.

Francisco Morazan Quesada
[1799-1842]. Was born on October 16th in Tegucigalpa (Honduras). In 1830 was proclaimed to be president of Central American Federation. Enacted many reforms, including freedom of speech, made separation of church and state. In 1838 in Guatemala was broken a revolt against him led by Rafael Carrera and soon Central America was at civil war. In 1839 he was elected president of El Salvador. In 1840 went into exhile in Colombia. In 1842 he proclaimed himself to be a president of Costa Rica. On September 15th he was shot in execution on the corner of Central Park in San Jose.

Francisco Serrano de Reina y Lizarde
Governor of Costa Rica in the years of 1698-1704. In 1704 was accused with illegal trading with British in port Moin and was pressed to resignation.

Gonzalo Vazquez de Coronado
[1552-1613]. Was born in Ciudad Guatemala. Governor of Costa Rica in the years of 1600-1604. In 1608 continued conquering region Talamanca. Governor of province Dui and Mexicanos (Talamanca) in the years of 1610-1613. Son of Juan Vazquez de Coronado. In 1601 he introduced for the first time the X-mas celebrations. In the same year he laid out the oldest highway in America on distance between Cartago and Panama ("camino de las mulas").

Gregorio de Sandoval y Gonzalez de Alcala
Governor of Costa Rica in the years of 1636-1644. In 1637 he ordered to established in Matina the custom office.

Jesus Jimenez Zamora
[1823-1897]. Was born on June 18th in Cartago. Two times president of Costa Rica in 1863-1866 and 1868-1870. In 1864 granted asylum to former Salvadoran President Gen. Gerardo Barrios, as a result of which the other four Central American governments broke off diplomatic relations with Costa Rica. He wanted to build the trailway interoceanic but failed. In 1868 overthrew after rebellion in cuartels Jose Maria Castro Madriz, to whom two years prior, handed over the presidency in democratic way. Immediately dismissed also two leaders of cuartels Salazar and Blanco. On April 1870 was overthrown by Tomas Guardia.

Jose Figueres Ferrer
[1906-1990]. Was born on September 25th in San Ramón, after his parents (father: doctor Mariano Figueres Forges and mother: a teacher Paquita Ferrera Minguella) escaped to there from Spain. Known better as Don Pepe. An economist, politic and philosopher. Three times president of the country (1948-1949), (1954-1958), (1970-1974). In 1948 headed the revolutionary movement of National Liberation. By many people is considered to be the biggest politic in country history. As a child was interested in math and physic. Attended the seminary in San Jose and later continued learning by correspondence in the International School in Scranton (Pensilvania). After that left for Boston, where attended the engineering course. During his study worked in Tea Company and as a translator.

On coming back in 1928, he bought a piece of ground in the Terrazu Upland, (to the south of Cartago and built La Lucha sin Fin farm ("the fight till the end"). On July 8th of 1942 led the broadscast against the Calderon rulings, due to which he was pressed to leave for few month for Mexico. On coming back in 1944 set up the Democratic Party, that a year later transformed into Social-Democratic Party. He blamed and critisized Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia for corruptions and embezzlement. In 1947 in his farm began training his own troops in order to abolish the undemocratic government. Took the occasion in 1948, when a supporter of Calderon Guardia, president Teodor Picado Michalski didn`t want to hand over a power for new chosen president Otilio Ulate Blanco. After five weeks long national war, Ferrer for 18 monthes was a member of Junta Fundadora, abolished the army, gave the suffrage for women and Blacks, and also introduced the Electoral Tribunal that took control over the ellections.

He was known of being against alcohol. In his terms, on official meetings, he never allowed to serve the liquors. They were being replaced by coffee, tea or water. Some of ambassador or his ministers tried to hide the liquors in jackets and cases. They drank them secretely avoiding of approaching to president. Figueres got famous by his decision that during the appointing the Junta in 1948 the toasts were drunk not by shampagne but by... water. As an explanation he said that shampagne costed too much and the country can`t afford for that.

During his second term he created the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE), nationalized banks, set up back the tranways in San Jose, introduced the Tourist Board (ICT), and a seat of Minister of Culture, Youths and Sport.
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Jose Maria Figueres Olsen
[1954-]. Son of famous Jose Figueres Ferrer. In 1994 ellections he won as PLN candidate gaining 49,6% of votes. He promised improve health care and education but his presidency was rather unpopular. It has been marked by price hikes and tax increases. On October 2004 was accused of receiving over $900.000 from the French telecomunication company Alcatel.

Jose Joaquin Rodriguez Zeledon
[1837-1897]. Born on January 1st in San Jose. A lawyer. President of Costa Rica in years 1890-1894. In 1889 he won the presidencial ellections representing Constitutional Party but he didn`t have the occasion to serve because the results were not recognized by off that time president Bernardo Soto Alfaro. It made riots in the streets. He got the power in 1890 and his ruling was considered as the dictatorship. He imprisoned many political oponents. In february of 1894 he ordered to prisone Jose Gregorio Trejos - a candidate of Unity Catolic Party expected to be won in ellections.

Jose Joaquin Trejos Fernandez
[1916-]. Was born on April 18th in San Jose. President of Costa Rica in the years 1966-1970. Economist and university professor. Its government main target was to stop the growing public expenses. At the beginning of its term the deficit was of 120 millions. Introduced 5% sales tax. Created the Banco Popular.

Jose Maria Alfaro Zamora
[1799-1856]. Was born on March 20th in Alajuela. Two times chief of the country: 1842-1844 (after execution of Francisco Morazan) and 1846-1847 (elected by Congress). Supported building of the highway San Jose - Puntarenas. A creator of the Saint Thomas Uniwersity. He was abolished by the coffee barons.

Jose Maria Castro Madriz
[1816-1892]. In 1847-1848 a chief of Costa Rica. Two times president of Costa Rica in the years of 1848-1849 and 1866-1868. A teacher. In 1848 proclaimed Costa Rica a republic and became the first Costa Rica president. During his presidency the national shield and flag were designed. In 1849 was abolished by coffee barons. Supported the freedom of press in spite of the fact he was often attacked by them journalists. Promoted public education and set up the high school for girls. Established a port in Limon. At the end of his second term called for voting for his ministry Julian Volio and it made the strong opposition against him. In result on September 1868 was abolished after the riots in cuartels in San Jose (by their commandants Salazar and Blanco).

Jose Maria Montealegre
[1815-1887]. He was born on March 19th in San Jose. The first surgeon in Costa Rica (studied medicine in London). President of Costa Rica during the term of 1859-1863. Come from a wealthy family of coffee plantation owners. Came to power through a coup d'état against Juan Rafael Mora Porras and was critisized by the undemocratical treatment of Mora supporters. In 1859 created the new constitution and in 1860 under it was elected a legal president.

Jose Rafael Gallegos
[1784-1850]. Was born on October 30th in Cartago. A teacher. Two times chief of state (1833-1835 and 1845-1846). Elected by Congress in 1833 and resigned under severe criticism two years later. Introduced so called Lay de Ambulancia, the capital rotation between four towns: San Jose, Cartago, Alajuela and Heredia. He encourage the tabacco cultivating.

Juan de Cavallon
In 1560 the Supreme Court of Guatemala Audience appointed out him for new conquistador. He crossed the Costa Rica border by land on january 1561. He as first ever brought cattle, pigs, ducks, horses, goats and chickens to Costa Rica. He turned toward Tempsigue lowlands and reached around Chomes. On March 1561 he continued for Meseta Central through Turrucares Hills, Esparza lowlands and Santa Ana, and established Castillo de Garcimunoz settlement (the name in honour of the town in Spain where he was born). In the same year in Santo Domingo lowlands he set up Villa los Reyes town (today the vicinity of Orotina). On January 1562 he was called on Guatemala.

Juan Fernandez de Salinas y de la Cerda
Governor of Costa Rica in the years of 1650-1655. In 1651 ordered to reinpopulate port of Suerre.

Juan Francisco Saenz Vasquez y Sendin
Governor of Costa Rica in the years of 1675-1681. In 1676 his forces together with Indians stopped pirates, who invaded Costa Rica.

Juan Lopez de la Flor
Governor of Costa Rica in the years of 1664-1674. In 1666 he stopped the invasion of pirate Henry Morgan.

Juan Mora Fernandez
[1784-1854]. Was born on July 12th. In the years of 1825-1833 he was a chief of Costa Rica state in United Provinces of Central America. Was noted for its land reforms. Brought to Costa Rica a steam machine, built the House of Money (la casa de la moneda) and was one of creators of Saint Thomas University (1843). Introduced also the judgement system. Innattentively he helped for borning new social class of coffee barons. His square and statue is put in front of Nacional Theater in San Jose.

Juan Rafael Mora Porras
[1814-1860]. Was born on February 8th in San Jose. President of Costa Rica in 1849-1859. In February 1856 he declared war on William Walker and won. He liquidated thithes. In 1859 despite his military victories, there was strong opposition to his domestic policies (because he decided about creating the first bank in the country). He was exhiled from the country and hided in El Salvador. On September 1860 he tried to make coup d`etat and come to Puntarenas with his armed squad finally fighting with government soldiers at Angostura, where was prisoned and sentenced to death. He was executed in Puntarenas. (In that town there is a bust bearing its name). Since 1929 there has been his monument in front of the main post-office building in San Jose.

Juan Vasquez de Coronado y Anaya
[1523-1565]. Was born in Saloniki (Spain). Son of Gonzalo Vasquez de Coronado and Catalina de Anaya. A younger brother of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado. In the years 1562-1565 the first successfull explorer of Costa Rica. In 1563 founded Cartago - the first colonial capital of Costa Rica. Stood out in treating Indians with more respect and managed to gain the cooperation of many of the native caciques in the eastern end of the Meseta Central. In 1565 was gained the title of governor of Costa Rica. Had friendline relationships especially with Quepoa Indians, married with Dulceche (a sister of their Corrohore cacique) and had three children with her. He helped them to rescue their prisoners from the Coto Brus region where they were prisoned by the enemy tribe.

Julio Acosta Garcia
[1872-1954]. Was born on May 23th in San Ramon. A president of Costa Rica in the years of 1920-1924. Former Minister of Foreign Affairs in government of Alfredo Gonzalez. In 1917 after a coup d`etat in Costa Rica, escaped to El Salvador. In 1919 participated in Sapoa Revolution (in one moment becoming a leader). In 1920 got 89% of voted in ellections. Used the policy of forgiveness (he didn`t want to judge supporters of previous dictator Tinoco). In 1921 nearly went to war with Panama over the border dispute. During his term the rents doubles. His monument is placed in park Morazan in San Jose.

Leon Cortes Castro
[1882-1946]. Was born on December 8th in Alajuela. A lawyer. President of Costa Rica in 1936-1940. Prior a governor of Alajuela province. A menager of National Archive and Pacific Electric Trailway. During his term introduced new bank reforms. Supported banana plantations in South Pacific zone and established ports in Quepos and Golfito. He was suspected of being Nazi sympathizer because his ties to rich German expatriates. Prevented entry by Jews. In San Jose province there is a canton of his name. In San Jose, in front of Costa Rica Art Museum there is his monument. In 1949 was granted a title "homeland`s person of merit".

Lorenzo Antonio de Granada y Balbin
Governor of Costa Rica in the years of 1707-1712. In 1709 he left Cartago with 120 men to cool down the uprisings in Cordillera de Talamanca, catching many Indians and driving them to judge in Cartago.

Luis Alberto Monge Alvarez
[1925-]. Was born on December 29th in Palmares. President of Costa Rica (1982-1986). At the age of 24 became a deputy. Former ambassador of Costa Rica in Israel. Made a monetary reform according to which all foreign exchange should pass by national banks. Managed to reduce the inflation. Declared Costa Rica neutral against civil war in Nicaragua, but allowed CIA to build airstrips along the Nicaragua border.

Manuel Aguilar Chacon
[1797-1846]. Was born on August 12th in San Jose. A chief of the country in the years of 1837-1838. A lawyer. He was against the curruption and encourage the highways building and the education. In 1838 was overthrown by Braulio Carillo (and that was the first coup d`etat in Costa Rica history). Was killed in El Salvador in 1846.

Manuel Mora Valverde
[1909-1994]. Was born on August 27th in San Jose. A politic. Got interested in politic in the age of 15. In 1930`s he was meeting in the house of his friend Carmen Lyra with many intellectualists. In 1931 was one of creators of Comunist Party. In the years of 1933-1948 served as deputy. In 1930`s he worked also as a spokesman of bananas plantation workers who felt to be deceived by United Fruit Company. Together with a writer Carlos Louis Fallas was a leader of strikes in plantations. Supported a social reforms of Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia. After a national war in 1948, together with Carmen Lyra has left to Mexico for two years. In 1977 became a leader of new political party Pueblo Unido (which then decayed into two other parties: Avangardia Popular and Pueblo Costarricense). In 1994 got the title "meritorious for nation".

Margarita Penon
Wife of Oscar Arias Sanchez. The first woman in Costa Rica history who run for being the candidate for representing its party in presidencial ellections. (In 1993 she run for that in PLN party).

Miguel Angel Rodriguez Echeverria
[1940-]. Was born on January 8th in San Jose. A lawyer, economist and busissneman. President of Costa Rica in the years of 1998-2002. In 1994 was second in presidencial elections. But on February 1th 1998 was chosen a president of Costa Rica with the support of 46,93 %. He was a candidate of The Democratic Social Christian Party (PUSC). During his presidency cut the number of ministers from 18 to 12. He also quadruppled the presidential annual salary, but after public outcry he apologized and returned to salary of his previous levels. In 2004 chose for Secretary General of Organization of American State (OAS). On October 2004 jailed after a corruption scandal (accused of receiving kickbacks from a government contract granted to a french company during his term).

Oscar Arias Sanchez
[1941-]. Was born on September 13th in Heredia. Studied in USA and later the economy and law in the University in Costa Rica. Then went on to take doctorate England with a thesis on the subject of "Who rules the Costa Rica?" He embarked on his political career in earnest in 1970, as assistant to Jose Figueres. When Figueres was elected in 1972, Arias was given a seat in the government as Minister of National Planning and Political Economy. In 1979 was elected General Secretary of the National Liberation Party. In the 1978 elections, when the opposition party candidate won the presidency, Arias was elected to the Legislative Assembly but withdrew in 1981 to work for his party's presidential candidate, Luis Alberto Monge, who won in 1982. He was elected President in 1986, winning 52.3% of the votes. As President, he intervened against the activities of U.S.-backed Contras on Costa Rican territory. Created the peace plan for the Central America, for which in 1987 he was granted the Nobel Peace Prize.

During his presidency managed to shift exports from traditional cash-crops (bananas, cofee) to non-traditional ones like exotic flowers. Reintroduced also a compulsory academic tests at the end of primary and secondary schools. Got many prizes (Jackson Ralston`s, the prince of Asturia, peace prize of Martin Luter King, the Peace Medal of Philadelphia). In Heredia there is a big sport-hall of his name.

Pablo Presbere
Indian leader during the conquering of Talamanca in the turn of XVII and XVIII century. In 1709 he led the uprisings in Talamanca against missionaires. Was caught and drove to Cartago. On JUne 4th of 1710 he was shot in execution in Cartago. In Limon is put his statue.

Prospero Fernandez Oreamuno
[1834-1885]. Was born on July 18th in San Jose. President of Costa Rica 1882-1885. He was for separation of government and church (introduced civil marriages and legalised divorce). He was for lay schools. He had an open conflict with bishop Thiel and in 1884 ordered to expell Jesuits from the country for the reason of agitation. He forbade to create the religious associations. Declared war on Guatemala which had embarked on the reunification of the dissolved United Provinces of Central America.

Rafael Angel Calderon Fournier
[1949-]. Was born on March 14th in Diriamba (Nicaragua). Son of Rafael Calderon Guardia. President of Costa Rica in the years of 1990-1994. A lawyer. Has come to Costa Rica in 1958. Graduated Colegio La Salle i University of Costa Rica. A Minister of Foreign Affairs in the government of Rodrigo Carazo. Three time he tried to be a president as a candidate of PUSC. On the third time he was finally elected president in 1990 gaining 51 % of votes. On October 2004 jailed due to accusation of efforts to hide parts of $40 million Finlands loans.

Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia
[1900-1970]. Was born on March 10th in San Jose. Graduated his study in Belgium. President of Costa Rica in the years of 1940-1944. During his presidency he established the Work Code (the minimum of wages, the rights for the work meetings and the social insurances). Established the University of Costa Rica. He was supported by the poor but criticized by the rich. Was allied himself with both the catholic church and the comunist party. That allienated him from the conservatives, the intelectuals and the upper classes. In 1944 was followed by Teodoro Picado Michalski. In 1948 tried to be a president again, but failed imperceptibly with Otilio Ulate Blanco. He didn`t accepted that and that`s why induced Michalski for not delivering the rule, that was the immediate reason for breaking a few weeks long civil war.

After the civil war he was exhiled. Tried also two times to enter to Costa Rica with his troops from Nicaragua. In 1960`s was allowed to come back to Costa Rica, and in 1962 was even a candidate for the new president. In 1991 in Barrio Escalante (San Jose) was opened the museum dedicated to him. The statue of him is standing in the Central Square in San Rafael de Barva.

Rafael Yglesias Castro
[1861-1924]. Was born on April 18th. President of Costa Rica (1894-1902). Thanks to the decision of Congress about the possibility to reellections, he could be a president twice. When he left for Europe for a while in 1899 in country was two-days long revolt (without any consequences). In 1902 Congress didn`t accepted for third time for his reellection so he had to hand over the presidency to Ascencion Esquivel Ibarra. Supported schoolbooks written by Ticos. He paid attention on building of pacific railway and telephonize the country.

Ricardo Jimenez Oreamuno
[1859-1945]. Was born on February 6th in Cartago. During the years of 1910-1914, 1924-1928 and 1932-1936 a president of Costa Rica. The most famous lawyer of the country. His father was Jesus Jimenez Zamora. A rector of University Santo Thomas and leader of the National Assembly. In 1910 represented the Republican Party in ellections. In 1924 was elected for the second time by Congress in spite of the fact he didn`t get the expected number of votes. Some riots followed that. In 1940 formed for a short time the Democratic Alliance Party. Was called the most elegant man of XX century. The only in Costa Rica history, a president of three resorts (president of the country, president of Tribunal of Justice and the president of Nacional Assembly). Married with Beatrize Zamora Lopez. In 1924 created the National Institute of Insurance (now it hosts its name). During his term part of debt for France was repaid, the new molo in Puntarenas was built and the pacific train lines ellectrificated. His statue is put on the backyard of Liceo of Costa Rica.

Rodrigo Carazo Odio
[1926-]. Was born on December 27th in Cartago. Presidnt of Costa Rica (1978-1982). An Economist. A professor of National University (1965-1966) and Costa Rica`s University (1956-1959). A menager of Central Bank and Costa Rica`s rafinery of RECOPE. In 1974 for the first time run for a presidency being supported by Party of Renovation Democracy, but failed. During his presidency paid much attention to develope petrochemistry industry. A founder of University of Peace.

Salvador Lara Zamora
President of Costa Rica in the years of 1880-1882. In 1880 was granted the presidency for the time Thomas Guardia stayed in Europe for health treatment. During his term managed to establish National Archive and Statistic Bureau.

Teodoro Picado Michalski
[1900-1960]. Was born on January 10th in San Jose. President of Costa Rica (1944-1948). A lawyer. During 1920-1924 a secretary of Costa Rica delegations in regional conferences. A Minister of Education in the years of 1932-1936. In 1946 established the National Geography Institut. In 1944 he was a candidate of Party Bloque de la Victoria. His contcandidate accused him of falsify the voting results. A right-hand man of Rafael Calderon Guardia. In 1948 when Calderon failed in ellections in favour of Otilio Ulate Blanco, he persuaded Picado to keep the power and refuse the ellections result and that led to the armed uprisings. Soon had to left for Nicaragua for exhile.

Tomas Guardia Gutierrez
[1831-1882]. Was born on December 16th in Bagaces. President of Costa Rica in the years 1870-1876 and 1877-1882. A general. In 1870 made a coup d`etat and soon called himself a dictator. But his rulings are considered today as one of the most important in Costa Rica history. He used the incomes from the taxes and coffee cultivation for the public expenditure (bridges, buildings).

He reduced the position of coffee aristocracy, supported the building of trailway San Jose - Limon, made some corrections to constitution from 1869 about the learning obligatory for both sexes in free schools. It`s believed that he ordered to build the fortress tower El Fortin in Heredia. In 1876-1877 handed over the power for two provisional presidents: Aniceto Esquivel Saenz i Vicente Herrera Zeledon (still having control over the army). In 1880 had to left for Europe for health treatment and appointed Salvador Lara on his place and when come back in january of 1882 called the new presidencial ellections.

Vicente Herrera Zeledon
[1821-1888]. Was born on January 20th in San Jose. President of Costa Rica in the years 1876-1877. Came to power in the coup d`etat that deposed President Aniceto Esquivel Saenz and resigned in favor of Gen. Tomas Guardia the following year. He was granted the presidency by Thomas Guardia and was ruling under his strong influence.

© 2004; SLUPSK; Rafal Cezary Piechocinski