REPUBLIC OF COSTA RICA


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GUEST BOOK


Precolumbian period
XVI century
XVII century
XVIII century
XIX century
XX century
XXI century



 
HISTORY: XIX century

Impoverishment of tabacco plantators

When Guatemala withholded the Costa Rica excluciveless for tabacco cultivating, in 1804 Costa Rica government proposed the new cultivation of indygo, cocoa, coffee, sugar cane. From Cuba, the first seedlings of coffee were brought. But the proposition didn`t produced the intended effects. That`s why, in 1808, in San Jose, the authorities finally announced the prohibition of tabacco cultivation. It resulted in strong protests (the first on such scale in history). The agrarian reforms were foretold, but the authority of vicekingdom didn`t response.


The prohibition of trading with Panama

In 1811, the vicekingdom forbided Costa Rica to trade with Panama. In this way Ticos were forced to buy more priced goods in its western neighbouring countries. The councils of Cartago, Heredia and San Jose together with governor Juan de Dios de Ayala strongly protested.


The bishop excommunicate

In 1815 bishop excommunicated Ticos who didn`t wan`t to pay the taxes from cattle, domestic birds, fruits and milk.


Pirate Benito Bonito

Around 1818 the western coast was terrorized by pirate Benito Bonito called "bloody sword". He looted burned Spanish galleons and took his hoardings to Cocos Island. One of his most spectacular achievement was to captured the transport of gold in Acapulco Mountains (Mexico) without firing a shot. His most infamous mistake was to let two Englishmen from a British ship he hijacked join his band of pirates. Years later, these two Brits were arrested by the authorities and sentenced to hang, but were released after leading their captors to Bonito's West Indian hideout, where he was finally cut down. Both Brits never managed to return to island again.


The map out of use

Around 1818 Captain Bennett Graham, a distinguished British naval officer put in charge of a coastal survey in the South Pacific, threw up his mission for a life of piracy. He was eventually caught and executed along with his officers, the remainder of his crew being sent to a penal colony in Tasmania. Among them was a woman Mary Welch, who after 20 years was freed and claimed that was in posession of a map of Graham featuring the place on Cocos Island where 350 tons of gold bullion stolen from Spanish galleons were buried. Welch's story was believed, and an expedition was mounted to hunt for the treasure. Welch went along and as quite an old woman set foot once again on Cocos. In the decades since she'd been there, however, the lay of the land had changed so much that many of her identifying marks, including a huge cedar tree had disappeared, and the expedition recovered nothing.


Treasure of Lima and Cocos Island

In 1820 when famous advanturer Jose de San Martin was approching to Lima (Peru), the Spanish Viceroy and the representatives of more than 50 churches in the town decided about moving the municipal gold and silver to the other place. Among these riches was solid-gold, gem-encrusted, life-size image of the Virgin Mary. It was figured that hiding this wealth anywhere near Lima would be foolish and decided to take it to the board of ship belonged to British sea captain William Thompson, a known and respected trader in the region. The plan was to have Thompson sail around for several months, with the treasure stowed aboard his merchantman, the Mary Dear, until the political situation improved. But a load of such value proved too great a temptation to Thompson and his men. Once out of sight of land, they cut the throats of the Viceroy's appointed guard, tossed their bodies overboard, and made haste to Cocos, where they duly buried the treasure. On their way back "Mary Dear" was picked up by a Spanish man-of-war. The crew was put on trial for piracy, convicted, and hung -- all except for Thompson and his first mate, who agreed to lead their captors to the stolen goods if their lives were spared. But when they only stepped on Cocos island, Thomson and his mate suddenly escaped into the jungle and were never founded. The frustrated captors finally left the island.


Independence

Independence from Spain came on the coattails of Mexico`s declaration earlier in the same year, on 15 September 1821. The news that the independence had been granted reached Costa Rica a full month after the event (October 13th).


The Iturbite empire and Ochomogo national war

In 1822 kreole officer Augustin de Iturbide set up in Mexico his own empire. Costa Rica started pondering over if not to enter to it. On getting the independence, in all centralamerican countries, more important became so called town-countries. In Costa Rica, important role in country politic played four towns of Meseta Central: Heredia, Cartago, San Jose and Alajuela. Two first from them inhabited by conservative aristocracy, were for entering the empire and two remaining ruled by progresive republicans were for partly independence within the shape of Central American Federation. The local quarrels quickly developed into civil war. After a brief battle in the Ochomogo Hills (suberbs of Cartago), the republican forces emerged victorious.


Federation of United Provinces of Central America

(1823 - 1838). In 1823 Costa Rica entered to the United Provinces of Central America (together with Gwatemala, Honduras, Salwador and Nikaragua). Entering to the Federation was caused by the fact that Costa Rica still was too weak for full independence. To become the independent republic, it needs the very important changes. The Federation was a chance for it and give the time for preparing for full independence. In 1838 that Unity was broke up for the first time and on the forehead of the country stood a dictator Braulio Carillo. When in 1842 was seemed that Costa Rica was decisively separated, a follower of Federation, Honduran Francisco Morazan attacked the country and overthrowing Braulio Carillo, announced himself the head of state.


The first chief of the country

The first chief of Costa Rica state became Juan Mora Fernandez. He set up the first printers in the country, founded the House of Money and Saint Thomas school. Besides he established the judicial system and gave free land grants to would-be coffee grovers. It drew to creation of the new coffee barons elite.


Guanacaste annexation

In 1823 the National Constitutional Assembly agreed that Guanacastecans could only make a decision to join to Costa Rica. In that time Nicaragua was a place where leaders fought. On July 25th 1824 they voted to secede from Nicaragua and joined Costa Rica. In colonial times that was a separated colony, that later got subordinated to Nicaragua.


The law "Ley de la Ambulancia"

It was brought by president Jose Rafael de Gallegos. It depended on four-years capital rotation between four Costa Rica towns: Cartago, San Jose, Heredia and Alajuela. It was canceled by Braulio Carillo.


The League National War

In 1835 the second national war (so called League War) was outbroke. The main reason of that was discontent of clergy with cancelling the tithes and with the fact that the capital of the country has been for a short time San Juan de Murcielagos.

On September 1835 inhabitants of Cartago rose agaist the government (under the leadership of Maximo Cordero). Soon were supported by united forces of Heredia and Alajuela. San Jose on the contrary was faithfull to president Carillo. On October 14th, Cartago tribes were defeated at Cuesta de Moras (a hill close to Curridabad). Josefinos with their leader don Jose Angel Soto continued pursuing untill the Cartago suburbs. All leaderships of this uprisings were soon convicted for long years for exhile and high fines.


Invasion of Quijano

In 1836 some Costa Rica immigrants with Nicaraguan forces invaded Guanacaste from Nicaragua. They were led by Manuel Quijano. But soon due to the heroic fightings of inhabitants as well as government troops, invaders withdrew to the borderline.


Manuel Aguilar - Braulio Carillo changings

In 1837 Manuel Aguilar was appointed by Congress for a presidency in a place of Braulio Carillo. A few days after getting the power, the rebellion inspired by Carillo followers against him outbroke, but quickly was suffocated. In order to reestablish tranquility Aguilar excused all those who took part in a League National War and who were put in exhile.

On 27th of May 1838 Braulio Carillo made the first ever in history coup d`etat and Manuel Aguilar was driven from the country.


The reasons for saving moneys

In the first half of XIX century, the only way to saving money was putting gold and silver coins in clayed jars, and covering them under the roots of trees.


Introducing and cultivating of coffee

Coffee was introduced to Costa Rica from Cuba in 1808 by a governor Tomas de Acosta. And the coffee Arabica beans were brought by Spaniards from Africa and the Middle-East. A first man, who planted the seedlings and then spreaded their cultivations for commercial purposes was a Feliks Welarde. Coffee and the ground for them were offered to everyone, who only wanted to cultivate them. At the beginning it was only cultivated in Meseta Central and in 1940`s became the main export good of Costa Rica. It was transported by carretas drawn by mules to Puntarenas, from where were being moving by boats through Chile to Europe. The transport by Costa Rica roads took about six days, and that was a reason why oxcart drivers took with them their families. In that time a new class of coffee barons was born.

For increasing of coffee industry an English trader William Le Lacheur was partly charged. In 1843 during his way back from USA to England, he called to Puntarenas port in seeking for the profitable load. His boat was fullfilled with coffee. But he didn`t have money enough to pay for that immediately. So, he was granted a credit, which repaid during two years.


Francisco Morazan invasion

On April of 1842, Honduran Francisco Morazan, together with 500 Salwadoran soldiers called to Caldera port and then marching reached Alajuela. There, in the place called El Jocote, the battle with 700 Costa Rica soldiers (led by Vicente Villasonor) took place. Their result was unseccesfull for the latter ones. The treaty was signed and according to it Braulio Carillo brought back the power and emigrated to El Salwador.


Morazan decline

On 29 May of 1842 happened a rebellion in Heredia against new government. On 11 November, the similar events broke out in Alajuela. Six houres later a general Antonio Pinto (leading the San Jose forces) refused obedience for Francisco Morazan. Colonel Florentino Alfaro with groups from Alajuela tried to help Antonio Pinto. Morazan was captured in Cartago, brought to San Jose and on 15 Augoust of 1842 was shot.


A president deserter

In 1844 Francisco Maria Oreamuno was chosen for president with the majority of votes. But he ruled only a month, and later moved to his home town Cartago. It resulted that the tribunal of Justice sued him accusing of leaving the presidence before the end of his term.


The republic and the first president

In 1848 Costa Rica was declared a republic and the first president was Jose Maria Castro Madriz. He initiated his administration by founding a high school for girls and sponsoring freedom of the press. But soon a few coffee families started again to rival each other for domination. A few unsuccess revolts organized (lead among others by previous president Jose M. Alfaro). In 1849 it resulted in president overthrowing and on his place was designated one of the most influenced coffee baron -Juan Rafael Mora.


The earthquake in Meseta Central

On March, 18th of 1851, a strong earthquake hit Costa Rica. Many public and private buildings in San Jose, Cartago and Heredia were destroyed. In Heredia the structure of Catedral got to be out of balance.


The quarrel about repairing the Catedral of Heredia

Shortly after the earthquake in Heredia in 1851, there was ordered to close of Catedral in Heredia. There was a fear that the shakes could severely put the construction out of balance. That`s why decided to take the most important relics for temporary to lying to the south the chapel of San Jose.

Simultaneously were created two concepcions of repairing the Catedral. The local authorities wanted to tear down the northern tower and facade and building on that place the new ones. The church authorities were on the opinion to build only a new facade would be enough. The quarrel was ended by appointing a government commision, that accorded with an opinion of priests. On March, 6th of 1855, the all renovation works were come into the end.


William Walker invasion

William Walker was an american adventurer, who in 1856 wanted to take control over entire Central America in order to being in possession of important strategic region. (That region was used by american gold seekers travelling on the distance between California and atlantic coast of USA). In 1855 he attacked as first Nicaragua, which finally subdued a year later and became its president. He wanted to restore the slavery there and dig through the canal between Nicaragua Lake and Pacific coast and used the natural way of San Juan river to passing boats.

In the same time, San Juan river, being the natural Nicaragua -Costa Rica border was used for inland navigation by rich industrialist Vargenbilt corporation. That way was used by gold seekers from USA, who travelled by it through Nicaragua Lake and then by land to their California destination.

Soon, Walker forced Wangerbilt to give up with its business, this way making its position in the country stroner. The rest countries of the region feeling more and more danger, mobilized its military forces. President of Costa Rica Juan Rafael Mora gathered 9.000 soldiers and equiped them with 2.000 muskets. On 11 march of 1856 reconnoitring Walker groups consisting of 240 men crossed the Costa Rica border. In the same time, Costa Rica president as the commander-in-chief led its groups from San Jose to Liberia.

On march 19th, Walker military groups stopped to rest in hacienda Santa Rosa (nowadays the territory Santa Rosa National Park), 35 kilometres from the border. In its central part, on the hill with the panoramic view there was a building with thick walls. On march 20th after cross-fire, in which in Costa Rica side 4 officers and 15 soldiers have been killed, Walker army was forced to retreat. Walker run away as the first leaving his 29 soldiers alone. Costa Ricans didn`t confine themselves to victory and followed the onvaders into Rivas in Nicaragua.

Walker gathered new forces of 500 soldiers and on April 11th once again attacked Rivas, where still stayed Costa Rica`s army.

In fight, on Costa Rica side a Juan Santamaria made famous. He managed to set a fire under the enemy shelter and second after was killed. He start to be considered as the national hero and his monument today is standing in Alajuela.

Short after the war, in Rivas a cholera epidemic outbroke, that decimated Costa Rica`s detachment ready for coming back. Weakened they managed to reach San Jose and that way they brought the germs. In a consequences 10.000 inhabitants died (10 % of all country population).


The sea battle with Nicaragua

In november of 1856 took place the brush between two navy boats of both of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Despite of the fact that Costa Rica was in possession of bigger and better equipped ship, the battle was won by Nicaragua. 59 from 100 Costa Rica seamen have been killed.

In 1858 was signed a border treaty between Nicaragua and Costa Rica called Canaz-Jerez Treaty. It calls for 20 markers to be placed to denote the border. It says, the border should paralell the coast of Lake Nicaragua at a distance of 3 kms south. (In 1897-1900 US engineer Edward P. Alexander places the first 12 border markers, and in 1905 the remaining 5 were placed by Costa Ricans, many too far inside Costa Rica. It made the future border problems).


German settlers

German immigrants has come in XIX century to Costa Rica in two waves. The first took place around 1821, after independence announcing, and the second lasted from the second half of century till the First World War.

In 1841 Costa Rica got diplomatic relations with German. Off that time German consul for Central America was Carl Friedrich Rudolf Klee. After that event, Germans started coming back from small towns to capital San Jose, where they stuck to coffee families. In the half of century, two attempts of organized colonization were taken: in La Angostura (close to Turrialba in Cartago province) and on the Miravalles volcano slopes.


Fights for controlling over San Juan river

On december of 1856, Costa Rica attacked the border stations along the San Juan river. The fight was paid by american investor Vanderbilt, the same who was driven away from Nicaragua by William Walker. Costa Rica won and that way started controlling the main water route for both countries, cutting off William Wallker access to Atlantic - a source of the supply.


The Blacks inflow

In XIX century Blacks from Panama, Honduras and Jamaica come to Limon province. They are employed in building railway San Jose - Limon and on banana plantations.

The first public bank foundation

In the middle of the century Costa Rica was in possession of strong economy due to the coffee export. The coffee producers had a monopoly for giving loans. On July 7th 1858, the first bank (called Medina) in the country has been founded, and that upset coffee plantators. In Historians opinion that was the immediate reason for coup d`etat in 1859.


Coup d`etat in 1859

A coffee baron Jose M. Montealegre initiated the coup d`etat againt off that time president Juan Rafael Mora, and got the power in the country. The main reason of that event was establishment a year before the first bank in Costa Rica, which drasticly reduced the incomes of coffee barons, who had till then the monopole for giving the loans. The first step of new president was closing the Medina Bank. He got the loan of 150.000 pesos from the government of Peru for vanishing of all the traces of filibustieros. He was critisized by the repercussions against supporters of Mora.

After period of his presidency, Mora started creating an opposition against Montealegre. The first uprising happened in February of 1860 but they soon were cool down. On September 14th of the same year his supporter Ignacio Arranciba captured Puntarenas and started preparing for invasion. Two days later Mora come there from El Salvador together with his armed squad (leaded by gen. Canas) and moved toward San Jose. In the same time government sent its troops under the leadership of Maximo Blanco. In Angostura both forces met and fought each other. The battle ended with the president victory. Soon after that Mora and a few other rebel leaders were shot in Puntarenas.


Costa Rica sheltered former El Salvador president

The next president became Jesus Jimenez. In 1864 Costa Rica decided to sheltere a former El Salvador president Gerardo Barrios. He was very unpopular in his country and for that reason Costa Rica put itself under the critique of other Central American nations. Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras called amnd demanded for giving him back. Costa Rica refused and for that reason four countries broke the relationships with that in the beginning of 1865.


Doctor Jose Maria Castro

In 1866 Jose Maria Castro was appointed to the president of Costa Rica. During his presidency the first telegraphic line was set up linking Puntarenas and Cartago. He was noted for being for the freedom of speech, in spite of the fact he was often attacked and critisized by them. he brought many educators from Europa and put the learning compulsory. At the end of his term he suggested his ministry don Juliana Volio as a candidate for new president. On November 1st of 1868 it made military movement. Its main leader were Blanco and Salazar (leaders of two San Jose cuartels).

After that Jesus Jimenez again come back to power. He was disliked of rising the army influences in the country and that`s why decided to removed both commanders of cuertels Blanco and Salazar.


Unusual dictator

On April of 1870, due to the coup d`etat general Tomas Guardia with his 22 people removed Jesus Jimenez. It led to appointment the provisional president Bruno Carranza, who ruled three monthes and resigned his post. In consequences parliament appointed for temporary president Thomas Guardia, who soon designated himself as a dictator. Despite of the fact that his rule was strongly centred, he wasn`t a typical dictator. He used coffee earnings and taxation to finance roads and public buildings. He managed to reduced the influences of coffee barons. He put also some alterations to constitution from 1869 reffering to the free and obligatory primary education.

On May 1876 Guardia decided to appointed Aniceto Esquivel for the head of state, leaving for himself the control over the army. Nevertheles during his visit in Guatemala, his opponents started inducing Aniceto for taking control over army. It made the riots in cuartels (barracks) in San Jose, Heredia and Alajuela. In result Aniceto Esquivel was abolished on July 1876. The next temporary president was Vicente Herrera Zeledon. But he ruled only four monthes and was influenced by Guardia. In 1880 Guardia again gave his power for another man Salvador Lara because had to leave for Europe for health treatment reasons. Lara ruled seven monthes and managed to created National Archive and National Bureau of Statistic. On January of 1882 Guardia come back to country and called the new presidencial ellections.


The building of atlantic railway

In 1871 the government of Thomas Guardia initiated the building of trailway route from San Jose to Limon. The country incurred a debt from United Kingdom. Henry Meiggs was a man in charge of contruction the railroad. He invited to collaborance his nephew Minor C. Keith who soon took over the control over the whole project. The working were started simultaneously in Alajuela and Limon. All the materials were transported from Puntarenas. In 1884, again the contract with Minor C.Keith was signed, in which he agreed to finish the railroad to the Atlantic. In enchange he was granted 99 year concession and huge amounts of land in the Atlantic. He insisted to employ Blacks in cutting the forests and putting the trails. In result, thousands of workers from carribbean islands (mainly from Jamaica) come. Minor paid the trailway building for the incomes from banana plantations, that had in possesion too. In December 1890, a bridge high over the turbulent waters of the Birris River finally brought the track from Alajuela to Limon together.

The works costed 8 million dollars. During these years 4.000 workers has gone because of epidemics and emaciacion. (It`s more than during the building of Panama Canal).


The border encounter with Nicaragua

Nicaragua started impairing the previously border treaty and wanted terribly to eliminate Costa Rica from the participation in building the transcontinental canal through the San Juan river. In 1876 Thomas Guardia decided to declared the war against Nicaragua. That decision was also accepted by Guatemala authorities, that set the condition Thomas Guardia to give the power for Aniceto Esquivel. When Guardia was marching with his troops to Guanacaste, Esquivel announced that he prefer more peaceful resolution. Due to that Guardia moved him away from power.

In 1886 the border crisis is born again (Nicaragua didn`t want prolongate the border treaty any more), and Gwatemala and USA offered their mediation to avoid the war in the region. In capital of Guatemala, the president of USA Grover Cleveland arbitraged and managed to put both countries to peaceful relationship.


The religious confusion

On June 9th of 1882 Prospero Fernandez Oreamuno got the power. During his rules the antijesuits and anticlergy Francmasoneria Association was established. In response, a bishop Bernardo August-Thiel initiated the religious agitation, which threaten with destroying the law and order in the country. That events were the immediate reason for which on June of 1884, a president drove bishop and Jesuits out of the country. He declared the lay education and forbided the activity of religious associations. In San Rafael de Cartago was even carried an attempt of insurrection (led by Father Ortiza).


Costa Rica - Panama border dispute

Costa Rica still had unsettled border with Panama. The border treats from 1856, 1864 and 1873 didn`t come into effect. In 1880 Costa Rica wanted to seized the terrains of Punta Burica but Colombia (Panama was still unindependent) threatened with the war. Due to its military weakness Costa Rica had to stepped back and asked Espana for mediation. Nevertheless in that time and in 1886 it was refused by Colombia. In 1896, Panama and Costa Rica, agreed to talk about border problem once again. The final decision was charged for French president Emile Loubet, who after four years granted almost all dispute region for Panama (off that time being a part of Columbia). Costa Rica president Gonzales Viguez refused that solution.


Again Centroamerican Union?

In 1885 off that time president of Guatemala Jose Rufino Barrios was keen on vision of recreating the Union of Central America. He had a big influence on governments in El Salvador and Honduras, and after the presidencial resignation of Thomas Guardia wanted to take control also over Costa Rica. In 1885 parliament of Guatemala approved the plans of Union not precluding the war to do that. President of Costa Rica Presbero Fernandez ordered to prepare San Jose to defend, just in case of war. He was at that time in Guanacaste and decided to come back to capital as soon as possible. He did that in spite of the fact he was ill and never got to the destination (died in Atenas). In that time Nicaragua and El Salvador also were against the Guatemala`s steps and only Honduras supported that. In Liberia ge. Victor Guardia treated his 500-member squad together which he left for El Salvador to fight. Barrios was killed there by united forces of three republics and soon all five countried signed the peace.


The increase of Puntarenas influence

At the end of XIX century, the total coffee export was pushing through the town. Boats were usually loaded of 80 - 120 coffee bags but only during high tides to avoid the shallows. Puntarenas served also as the grain port. Grain was brought there from Guanacaste through the mouth of Tempsique and Nicoya Bay. Similar was with livestock transported by barges from Guanacaste plains to Puntarenas, and then by land to San Jose.

On January 1st of 1872 the Iron Mole is built up. A few years later to improve the connection between Barranca quarter and mole, the trolleybus trails came into being. That enterprise appeared unsuccesfull and started being called the Mule Trailway. In 1890 on building the trailway connected capital with competitive atlantic port-Limon, Puntarenas has lost its role in coffee export.


The first pieces of democracy

In 1889 Ticos got the first trace of democracy. Bernardo Soto at the end of his term (May 1st of 1889) decided about handing over the power to his candidate Ascencion Esquivel. It made the strong objection of clergy, conservativers and old oligarchy. They all got united and revealed their own candidate Jose Joaguina Rodriquez, who soon won in presidencial ellection. But chosen by Soto Ascencion Esquivel didn`t recognized his victory and on August 14th of 1889, the masses of citizens (induced by clergy) rose and marched in the streets of Heredia, San Jose and Cartago (10.000 protesters). (Contrary to that citizens in Alajuela were ready to take military support to Esquivel). In order to cool down the situation in country, Soto returned to power and when on November 7th of 1889 liberals (supporters of Esquivel) tried to stir police in San Jose up and the new revolt was about, he decided about appointing as provisional president Carlos Duran (member of opposition Constitutional Party). That event is considerred as the beginning of Costa Rica democracy.

Soto tenure was based on typical liberal rules. When they glorified the national hero - Juan Santamaria, their main oponent - church propagated the cult of Virgin of Los Angeles.

That war of words was won by church, because Liberals critized too much the traditions. Soto was aware of dropping the popularity and that was a big influence on his decision about leaving the highest office. Since that time quite calm governments lasted until 1919.


Dictatorship of Jose Joaguin Rodriguez Zeledon

The governments of Jose Joaguin Rodriguez Zeledon, (despite of the fact that started in accordance with the constitution), had typical elements for dictatorship. Many his opponents and journalists were sentenced to exile. He refused to work together with the Congress that was dismissed in 1892. In February 1894 the Liberals supported for future presidency Manuel J. Jimenez. Others wanted voting for Felix A. Montero. Nevertheless the Catolic Unity party had the biggest chance to win in ellections, but Rodriquez ordered to prisone that party`s candidate Jose Gregorio Trejos. It made the uprisings (in Grecia 14 people have been killed by police). The leaders of the riots were pressed to leave Costa Rica.


National Theater foundation

The immediate reason for building the national theater was omission Costa Rica by world known primadonna Adelina Patti during her tournee through Central America. There wasn`t enough place for her performance. It influenced on coffee barons ambitions. In 1890 they agreed the special export tax, which was used for paying foreign and european architects, buildings materials (iron from Belgium, marble from Italy), decorators. But during of three years, they managed to gathered only 5 % of wanted sum of money. That`s why in 1893 the new tax was put and was obligatory for all inhabitants. Finally the building was erected in 1897.


Diplomacy with Nicaragua

In 1896 again quarrel incidents happened between Nicaragua and Costa Rica. On March 27th 1896 in San Salvador was signed a treaty Pacheco-Matus. Costa Rica was represented by Leonidas Pacheco Cabezas. But that was not for long. In 1898 there was again a fear of might-be war between two nations. There were some border incidents, but thanks to the mediation of Guatemala it was calmed down.


The changing of money

In 1896 Costa Rica started to emit its national coins - colones. They replaced golden and silver pesos.


The first archeological investigations

The first archeological investigations on a large scale were initiated in 1896 and 1897 by Swedish Carl V. Hartman. They were also being carring out on Las Mercedes and Guarco Valley (Chinchilla, Curridabat, Concepcion) (1901) and Las Huacas in Nicoya (1907). He paid also attention on purchasing objects from individuals from Costa Rica. This way they constitue 3/4 of all 12.000 objects found by him in the country. All the finds were taken to Sweden.


President in Europe, rebellion in the country

In 1899 off-that time president Rafael Iglesias Castro went to Europe and he gave his duties for a while for his brother Demetrio Iglesias. In that time in San Jose started the revolutionary movement leaded by Federico Velarde. But it failed during the storm for the artillery building. On both sided were wounded and killed cases. The situation soon come back to normal.


 
2004; SLUPSK; Rafal Cezary Piechocinski