Precolumbian period
XVI century
XVII century
XVIII century
XIX century
XX century
XXI century


Secret trading

At the beginning of XVIII century spanish dominions in America were forbidden to trade with other countries. Citizens of Cartago under the pretext of controlling their cocoa plantations in Matina, come to the shore and traded with holland and british boats. In 1704 governor Serrano de Reina was accused for illegal trading in Moin and was forced to resignation.

The foundation of chapel at the Virilla River

At the beginning of XVIII century, the inhabitants of Meseta Central were getting upset because of difficulties they had to take to come into colonial capital of Cartago. Those, who lived in the most remoted areas had to take for that even 2 days. Because of that in March, 26th of 1705, a few important figures from the 3 valleys (Barva, Aserri i Pacerua) lying in the western part, went to the Guatemala Audience with the request for permission of building the new chapel there. On gaining that, it was built on the place known today as Laginilla, close to the bridge above Virilla River of much importance in that time.

Pablo Presbere and rebellion of Indians

Since the beginning of the century, missionaires who ome to Talamanca had guns for their safety. That was misunderstood by Indians because they thought of coming new spanish invasion and it was the main reason why in 1709 they started rebellion. They killed two missionaires: Pablo de Rebullido and Antonio de Zamorra, as well as 10 soldiers. 14 chirches have been buried. They were leaded by Indian Pablo Presbere. In consequences, from Cartago left a group of 120 men under the leadership of governor Lorenzo Antonio de Granada y Balbin. They jointed with 80 other men led by Jose de Casasola y Cordoba. Soon managed to caught many Indians which were driven to Cartago and got judged. Pablo Presbere was soon executed there.

Irazu volcano eruption and the earthquake

In Cartago, on 16 february 1723, at 3 p.m. Irazu volcano erupted. Cartago (off that time capital of Costa Rica) was covered by thick layer of ashes and lava. The eruption and attendant on it the earthquake and underground roars, still continued through whole year. The last ones was so strong that opened the doors and windows in the houses.

The towns foundation

In XVIII century Spaniards recalled about Costa Rica and began its further colonization. In result the new towns have been founded or developed: San Jose (1737), Heredia (1755) oraz Alajuela (1782). All towns from that period were built under the same design. All of them took shape around churches.

Miskitos attack

In 1724 Miskito Indians under the command of Indian chiefs Anibal and Peter plundered Matina Valley. They prisoned 20 men.

In 1725 they appeared with the peace proposition and get back the prisoners. But a year later, three pirogs full of trade goods come from Punta Gorda in Belize. Their owners were inprisoned on the order of governor of valley and their goods were robberied. In result Anibal with 22.000 people on 14 pirogs come to Costa Rica in a half a year later, but that time in warlike intentions. They robbered cocoa plantations and destroyed equipments and machines.

San Jose foundation

In 30`s , in the place of nowadays town, there were scattered some small settlements, among others Asseri, Barva, Escazu, Curridabad, Pacaca. Inhabitants of Asseri proposed to build the chapel in central point. The perfect place for that seemed to be Villa Nova Boca del Monte. On building it, the Saint John parish was set up. Soon, around the chapel 11 tiled and 15 thatched houses have been erected. The final date of town foundation is considered 21 May of 1737.

Heredia foundation

The history of Heredia began in 1706, when in its today position, inhabitants of Asserii built the chapel. In 1717 the chapel was moved to the today quarter of Heredia Cujubigui. Only in 1755 a major Tomas Lopez gave a decree about town foundation. On July 1st of 1765, the chairman of the Supreme Court of Guatemala Audience ratified that and gave it a name of Immaculate Conception de Cujubigui de Heredia.

Puntarenas foundation

Puntarenas was set up in XVIII century. The first houses were built from ceder and their roofs thatched. The streets at the beginning were sandy (unpaved) till a few trader initiated to build their own pavements by theirselves in front of their shops.

The capital appearance

In the second part of the XVIII century Cartago has been considerably developed. Some new streets and squares were founded. Along the streets the water ditches. The class regionalization was appearing. The centre of town was inhabited by conquistadors, their descendants and Creole aristocracy. One stored houses with wooden doors and shutters were being destinguished. Their walls were being putting up by the special bricks. They were made by mixture of clay, mud and eggs which together with corn were crushed for pulp by cows and horses and later dried for two weeks on sun (they were being making in El Tejar-small settlement close to Cartago).

The suburbs were inhabited by workers and servants.

Further quarrels with Miskitos

In 1778 there were a few trials of signing the treaty with Miskito Indians. None of them ended with success. In 1779 the Miskito leaders come to Matina and they asked for gifts for their king. That tribute had been paiding to the Miskito King until 1881 and simbolized honouring their leaders by King of Spain.

A bishop Tristan

In Cartago, in 1782, a bishop Esteban Lorenzo has founded the school of Spanish and hospital. During his way back to Nicaragua, he entered the territory of Guatusos Indians and tried to christianized them but without success.

The Alajuela foundation

The foundation of Alajuela was the answer to the problem of the people to adjacent areas to attend religious services in faraway Heredia Little by little small farms were established in the region and by the time , the inhabitants numbered over 1.200 souls, it became the necessary to build the chapel of ease for the neighborhood of Alajuela, Ciruelas, Targuas, Poas and Rio Grande. On November 20th of 1782 the bishop of Nicaragua and Costa Rica Esteban Lorenzo de Tristan visited the area they had selected for chapel. The public oratory has been established for the celebration of the Holy sacriface of mass and religious holidays. The new town was named Alajuela.

2004; SLUPSK; Rafal Cezary Piechocinski